Archaeologists work with and debate treasure in legal, ethical and research terms. But what is ‘treasure’ and how is it understood in contemporary society? This conference will explore how public archaeologists foster education and engagement with treasure, but also critically evaluate treasure-related misconceptions, abuses, unethical and illegal practices. Can public archaeologists create new archaeological strategies and stories that promote the ethical, responsible and culturally respectful discussion of rare and unique items from the human past? Can they also create new definitions of treasure that directly challenge criteria focusing on artisanal skill and monetary value?